Free Space Optics (FSO), also called Free Space Photonics (FSP) or Optical
Wireless, refers to the transmission of modulated visible or infrared (IR)
beams through the atmosphere to obtain broadband communications. FSO systems
can function over distances of several kilometers. As long as there is a clear
line of sight between the source and the destination, and enough transmitter
power, communication is theoretically possible.
Like fiber, FSO uses lasers to transmit data, but instead of enclosing the
data stream in a glass fiber, it is transmitted through the air. Unlike the
wireless systems of the past, FSO is all-optical, so you get the speed of
fiber without the substantial costs of digging up sidewalks to install a fiber
link. FSO technology requires no government licensing and can be readily deployed
within hours of the availability of line-of-sight access. This means no hassles,
no backlog and no intermediary devices to the fiber backbone.
Available FSO systems offer capacities in the range of 100 Mbps to 2.5 Gbps,
and demonstration systems report data rates as high as 160 Gbps. These systems
are compatible with a wide range of applications and markets, and they are
sufficiently flexible as to be easily implemented using a variety of different
In A Nutshell
If you understand how address records are beamed between Palm devices, you
basically understand free space optics (FSO). FSO transmits invisible, eye-safe
light beams from one "telescope" to another using low power infrared
lasers in the teraHertz spectrum, where capacity can reasonably be expected
to reach 10 Gbps. The light beam carries whatever optical transmission signal
(layer 2 or MAC) and protocol framing a manufacturer chooses to market, typically
SONET/ATM and 10/100/1000 Ethernet. Products targeted for access circuits
typically support rates from T1 to 2.5 Gbps.
FSO requires no licenses, has repeatedly demonstrated a rapid time to deployment,
and has a low cost per bit compared to fixed wireless or the already discounted
alternative of laying new fiber.
As an example, a SONAbeam can be installed on tripods, indoors, in less
than 30 minutes using fSONA's simple and elegant alignment system. More importantly,
installs won't be delayed, blocked, or cancelled because the landlord won't
cooperate in time to meet the customer's needs.
A Rich Spectrum of FSO Products
Point-to-point FSO systems are available in various bandwidths, are protocol-,
topology-, and architecture-transparent, and can be used in numerous applications,
according to customer needs. The most common applications are campus and
last-mile connectivity, backhaul for PCS and Wi-Fi networks, route-diversity
for mission critical links and temporary deployments. Specialist applications
include video and broadcast networks, connectivity for remote PBX shelves
and distributed cellular antenna systems.
In each case, the FSO link replaces a fiber connection with a free space optics
link. All fSONA products operate at ISO Layer-1 so there are no issues connecting
to any piece of internetworking equipment, be it a switch, a router, a multiplexor
or other hardware. Currently available SONAbeam™ products operate from
6Mb/s upto 1.5Gb/s and
provide connectivity options for all speeds in between, including T1/E1, DS3/E3,
Fast Ethernet, OC3 TM/SONET, 270-540Mb video, OC12 ATM./SONET and Gigabit
Ethernet, as well as custom/proprietary interface speeds.
Using SONAbeam products Service Providers and Enterprises can provide high
speed communications quickly, affordably and with no impact to either their
existing customer premises and metro network equipment or their management